Trigger finger is a condition of the hand that limits finger movement. It is characterized by the inability to straighten a finger from a flexed position. It occurs due to tenosynovitis caused by inflammation of the tendon sheaths surrounding the flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis.
The swelling and inflammation prevents the tendon from gliding smoothly through the sheath, and thus the finger gets stuck in the bent position and then snaps back into place.
Initial treatment for this condition is usually non-surgical, with rest, splinting, exercise, over the counter pain or anti-inflammatory medications, or steroid injections. Surgical treatment for this condition involves physically releasing the swollen A1 pulley sheath surrounding the tendons. It is an open procedure in which a small incision is made along the palm to expose the A1 pulley, which is then cut. The finger is then tested to ensure that smooth flexion occurs.